In this chapter, the following topics will be covered:
Enhanced BGP EVPN features such as ARP suppression, unknown unicast suppression, and optimized IGMP snooping
Distributed IP anycast gateway in the VXLAN EVPN fabric
Anycast VTEP implementation with dual-homed deployments
VXLAN BGP EVPN has been extensively documented in various standardized references, including IETF drafts1 and RFCs.2 While that information is useful for implementing the protocol and related encapsulation, some characteristics regarding forwarding require additional attention and discussion. Unfortunately, a common misunderstanding is that VXLAN with BGP EVPN does not require any special treatment for multidestination traffic. This chapter describes how multidestination replication works using VXLAN with BGP EVPN for forwarding broadcast, unknown unicast, and multicast (BUM) traffic. In addition, methods to reduce BUM traffic are covered. This chapter also includes a discussion on enhanced features such as early Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) suppression, unknown unicast suppression, and optimized Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping in VXLAN BGP EVPN networks. While the functions and features of Cisco’s VXLAN BGP EVPN implementation support reduction of BUM traffic, the use case of silent host detection still requires special handling, which is also discussed.
In addition to discussing Layer 2 BUM traffic, this chapter talks about Layer 3 traffic forwarding in VXLAN BGP EVPN networks. VXLAN BGP EVPN provides Layer 2 overlay services as well as Layer 3 services. For Layer 3 forwarding or routing, the presence of a first-hop default gateway is necessary. The distributed IP anycast gateway enhances the first-hop gateway function by distributing the endpoints’ default gateway across all available edge devices (or Virtual Tunnel Endpoints [VTEPs]). The distributed IP anycast gateway is implemented using the Integrated Routing and Bridging (IRB) functionality. This ensures that both bridged and routed traffic—to and from endpoints—is always optimally forwarded within the network with predictable latency, based on the BGP EVPN advertised reachability information. Because of this distributed approach for the Layer 2/Layer 3 boundary, virtual machine mobility is seamlessly handled from the network point of view by employing special mobility-related functionality in BGP EVPN. The distributed anycast gateway ensures that the IP-to-MAC binding for the default gateway does not change, regardless of where an end host resides or moves within the network. In addition, there is no hair-pinning of routed traffic flows to/from the endpoint after a move event. Host route granularity in the BGP EVPN control plane protocol facilitates efficient routing to the VTEP behind which an endpoint resides—at all times.
Data centers require high availability throughout all layers and components. Similarly, the data center fabric must provide redundancy as well as dynamic route distribution. VXLAN BGP EVPN provides redundancy from multiple angles. The Layer 3 routed underlay between the VXLAN edge devices or VTEPs provides resiliency as well as multipathing. Connecting classic Ethernet endpoints via multichassis link aggregation or virtual PortChannel (vPC) provides dual-homing functionality that ensures fault tolerance even in case of a VTEP failure. In addition, typically, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) services are required for dynamic allocation of IP addresses to endpoints. In the context of DHCP handling, the semantics of centralized gateways are slightly different from those of the distributed anycast gateway. In a VXLAN BGP EVPN fabric, the DHCP relay needs to be configured on each distributed anycast gateway point, and the DHCP server configuration must support DHCP Option 82.3 This allows a seamless IP configuration service for the endpoints in the VXLAN BGP EVPN fabric.
The aforementioned standards are specific to the interworking of the data plane and the control plane. Some components and functionalities are not inherently part of the standards, and this chapter provides coverage for them. The scope of the discussion in this chapter is specific to VXLAN BGP EVPN implementation on Cisco NX-OS-based platforms. Later chapters provide the necessary details, including detailed packet flows, for forwarding traffic in a VXLAN BGP EVPN network, along with the corresponding configuration requirements.
The VXLAN with BGP EVPN control plane has two different options for handling BUM or multidestination traffic. The first approach is to leverage multicast replication in the underlay. The second approach is to use a multicast-less approach called ingress replication, in which multiple unicast streams are used to forward multidestination traffic to the appropriate recipients. The following sections discuss these two approaches.
Leveraging Multicast Replication in the Underlying Network
The first approach to handling multidestination traffic requires the configuration of IP multicast in the underlay and leverages a network-based replication mechanism. With multicast, a single copy of the BUM traffic is sent from the ingress/source VTEP toward the underlay transport network. The network itself forwards this single copy along the multicast tree (that is, a shared tree or source tree) so that it reaches all egress/destination VTEPs participating in the given multicast group. As the single copy travels along the multicast tree, the copy is replicated at appropriate branch points only if receivers have joined the multicast group associated with the VNI. With this approach, a single-copy per-wire/link is kept within the network, thereby providing the most efficient way to forward BUM traffic.
A Layer 2 VNI is mapped to a multicast group. This mapping must be consistently configured on all VTEPs where this VNI is present, typically signifying the presence of some interested endpoint below that VTEP. Once it is configured, the VTEP sends out a corresponding multicast join expressing interest in the tree associated with the corresponding multicast group. When mapping a Layer 2 VNI to a multicast group, various options are available in the mapping provision for the VNI and multicast group. The simplest approach is to employ a single multicast group and map all Layer 2 VNIs to that group. An obvious benefit of this mapping is the reduction of the multicast state in the underlying network; however, it is also inefficient in the replication of BUM traffic. When a VTEP joins a given multicast group, it receives all traffic being forwarded to that group. The VTEP does not do anything with traffic in which no interest exists (for example, VNIs for which the VTEP is not responsible). In other words, it silently drops that traffic. The VTEP continues to receive this unnecessary traffic as an active receiver for the overall group. Unfortunately, there is no suboption for a VNI to prune back multicast traffic based on both group and VNI. Thus, in a scenario where all VTEPs participate in the same multicast group or groups, the scalability of the number of multicast outgoing interfaces (OIFs) needs to be considered.
At one extreme, each Layer 2 VNI can be mapped to a unique multicast group. At the other extreme, all Layer 2 VNIs are mapped to the same multicast group. Clearly, the optimal behavior lies somewhere in the middle. While theoretically there are 224 = 16 million possible VNI values and more than enough multicast addresses (in the multicast address block 22.214.171.124–126.96.36.199), practical hardware and software factors limit the number of multicast groups used in most practical deployments to a few hundred. Setting up and maintaining multicast trees requires a fair amount of state maintenance and protocol exchange (PIM, IGMP, and so on) in the underlay. To better explain this concept, this chapter presents a couple of simple multicast group usage scenarios for BUM traffic in a VXLAN network. Consider the BUM flows shown in Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-1 Single Multicast Group for All VNIs
Three edge devices participate as VTEPs in a given VXLAN-based network. These VTEPs are denoted V1 (10.200.200.1), V2 (10.200.200.2), and V3 (10.200.200.3). IP subnet 192.168.1.0/24 is associated with Layer 2 VNI 30001, and subnet 192.168.2.0/24 is associated with Layer 2 VNI 30002. In addition, VNIs 30001 and 30002 share a common multicast group (188.8.131.52), but the VNIs are not spread across all three VTEPs. As is evident from Figure 3-1, VNI 30001 spans VTEPs V1 and V3, while VNI 30002 spans VTEPs V2 and V3. However, the shared multicast group causes all VTEPs to join the same shared multicast tree. In the figure, when Host A sends out a broadcast packet, VTEP V1 receives this packet and encapsulates it with a VXLAN header. Because the VTEP is able to recognize this as broadcast traffic (DMAC is FFFF.FFFF.FFFF), it employs a destination IP in the outer IP header as the multicast group address. As a result, the broadcast traffic is mapped to the respective VNI’s multicast group (184.108.40.206).
The broadcast packet is then forwarded to all VTEPs that have joined the multicast tree for the group 220.127.116.11. VTEP V2 receives the packet, but it silently drops it because it has no interest in the given VNI 30001. Similarly, VTEP V3 receives the same packet that is replicated through the multicast underlay. Because VNI 30001 is configured for VTEP V3, after decapsulation, the broadcast packet is sent out to all local Ethernet interfaces participating in the VLAN mapped to VNI 30001. In this way, the broadcast packet initiated from Host A reaches Host C.
For VNI 30002, the operations are the same because the same multicast group (18.104.22.168) is used across all VTEPs. The BUM traffic is seen on all the VTEPs, but the traffic is dropped if VNI 30002 is not locally configured at that VTEP. Otherwise, the traffic is appropriately forwarded along all the Ethernet interfaces in the VLAN, which is mapped to VNI 30002.
As it is clear from this example, unnecessary BUM traffic can be avoided by employing a different multicast group for VNIs 30001 and 30002. Traffic in VNI 30001 can be scoped to VTEPs V1 and V3, and traffic in VNI 30002 can be scoped to VTEPs V2 and V3. Figure 3-2 provides an example of such a topology to illustrate the concept of a scoped multicast group.
Figure 3-2 Scoped Multicast Group for VNI
As before, the three edge devices participating as VTEPs in a given VXLAN-based network are denoted V1 (10.200.200.1), V2 (22.214.171.124), and V3 (10.200.200.3). The Layer 2 VNI 30001 is using the multicast group 126.96.36.199, while the VNI 30002 is using a different multicast group, 188.8.131.52. The VNIs are spread across the various VTEPs, with VNI 30001 on VTEPs V1 and V3 and VNI 30002 on VTEPs V2 and V3. The VTEPs are required to join only the multicast group and the related multicast tree for the locally configured VNIs. When Host A sends out a broadcast, VTEP V1 receives this broadcast packet and encapsulates it with an appropriate VXLAN header. Because the VTEP understands that this is a broadcast packet (DMAC is FFFF.FFFF.FFFF), it uses a destination IP address in the outer header with the multicast group address mapped to the respective VNI (184.108.40.206). This packet is forwarded to VTEP V3 only, which previously joined the multicast tree for the Group 220.127.116.11, where VNI 30001 is configured. VTEP V2 does not receive the packet, as it does not belong to the multicast group because it is not configured with VNI 30001. VTEP V3 receives this packet because it belongs to the multicast group mapped to VNI 30001. It forwards it locally to all member ports that are part of the VLAN that is mapped to VNI 30001. In this way, the broadcast traffic is optimally replicated through the multicast network configured in the underlay.
The same operation occurs in relation to VNI 30002. VNI 30002 is mapped to a different multicast group (18.104.22.168), which is used between VTEPs V2 and V3. The BUM traffic is seen only on the VTEPs participating in VNI 30002—specifically multicast group 22.214.171.124. When broadcast traffic is sent from Host Z, the broadcast is replicated only to VTEPs V2 and V3, resulting in the broadcast traffic being sent to Host Y. VTEP V1 does not see this broadcast traffic as it does not belong to that multicast group. As a result, the number of multicast outgoing interfaces (OIFs) in the underlying network is reduced.
While using a multicast group per VNI seems to work fine in the simple example with three VTEPs and two VNIs, in most practical deployments, a suitable mechanism is required to simplify the assignment of multicast groups to VNIs. There are two popular ways of achieving this:
VNIs are randomly selected and assigned to multicast groups, thereby resulting in some implicit sharing.
A multicast group is localized to a set of VTEPs, thereby ensuring that they share the same set of Layer 2 VNIs.
The second option to handling multidestination traffic may sound more efficient than the first, but in practice it may lack the desired flexibility because it limits workload assignments to a set of servers below a set of VTEPs, which is clearly undesirable.
Using Ingress Replication
While multicast configuration in the underlay is straightforward, not everyone is familiar with or willing to use it. Depending on the platform capabilities, a second approach for multidestination traffic is available: leveraging ingress or head-end replication, which is a unicast approach. The terms ingress replication (IR) and head-end replication (HER) can be used interchangeably. IR/HER is a unicast-based mode where network-based replication is not employed. The ingress, or source, VTEP makes N–1 copies of every BUM packet and sends them as individual unicasts toward the respective N–1 VTEPs that have the associated VNI membership. With IR/HER, the replication list is either statically configured or dynamically determined, leveraging the BGP EVPN control plane. Section 7.3 of RFC 7432 (https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7432) defines inclusive multicast Ethernet tag (IMET) routing, or Route type 3 (RT-3). To achieve optimal efficiency with IR/HER, best practice is to use the dynamic distribution with BGP EVPN. BGP EVPN provides a Route type 3 (inclusive multicast) option that allows for building a dynamic replication list because IP addresses of every VTEP in a given VNI would be advertised over BGP EVPN. The dynamic replication list has the egress/destination VTEPs that are participants in the same Layer 2 VNI.
Each VTEP advertises a specific route that includes the VNI as well as the next-hop IP address corresponding to its own address. As a result, a dynamic replication list is built. The list is updated when configuration of a VNI at a VTEP occurs. Once the replication list is built, the packet is multiplied at the VTEP whenever BUM traffic reaches the ingress/source VTEP. This results in individual copies being sent toward every VTEP in a VNI across the network. Because network-integrated multicast replication is not used, ingress replication is employed, generating additional network traffic. Figure 3-3 illustrates sample BGP EVPN output with relevant fields highlighted, for a Route type 3 advertisement associated with a given VTEP.
Figure 3-3 Route type 3: Inclusive Multicast
When comparing the multicast and unicast modes of operation for BUM traffic, the load for all the multidestination traffic replication needs to be considered. For example, consider a single Layer 2 VNI present on all 256 edge devices hosting a VTEP. Further, assume that a single VLAN exists on all 48 Ethernet interfaces of the edge devices where BUM traffic replication is occurring. Each Ethernet interface of the local edge device receives 0.001% of the nominal interface speed of BUM traffic. For 10G interfaces, this generates 0.0048 Gbps (4.8 Mbps) of BUM traffic at the edge device from the host-facing Ethernet interfaces. In multicast mode, the theoretical speed of BUM traffic remains at this rate. In unicast mode, the replication depends on the amount of egress/destination activity on the VTEP. In the example of 255 neighboring VTEPs, this results in 255 × 0.0048 = ~1.2 Gbps of BUM traffic on the fabric. Even though the example is theoretical, it clearly demonstrates the huge overhead that the unicast mode incurs as the amount of multidestination traffic in the network increases. The efficiency of multicast mode in these cases cannot be understated.
It is important to note that when scoping a multicast group to VNIs, the same multicast group for a given Layer 2 VNI must be configured across the entire VXLAN-based fabric. In addition, all VTEPs have to follow the same multidestination configuration mode for a given Layer 2 domain represented through the Layer 2 VNI. In other words, for a given Layer 2 VNI, all VTEPs have to follow the same unicast or multicast configuration mode. In addition, for the multicast mode, it is important to follow the same multicast protocol (for example, PIM ASM,4 PIM BiDir5) for the corresponding multicast group. Failure to adhere to these requirements results in broken forwarding of multidestination traffic.